T & T Facts

Republic Of Trinidad And Tobago

Capital: Port of Spain
Main Towns: City of San Fernando,
Arima, Point Fortin,
Chaguanas (Trinidad)
Scarborough (Tobago)
Nationality: Trinidad — Trinidadian
Tobago — Tobagonian
Official Language: English
Population: 1,353,895 (2016 figures)
Electricity: 110 volts/220 volts (+/-6%); 60 Hz
Telephone: 1 (868) + seven-digit local


A8t the gateway to the Caribbean, the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is renowned for its industrialised, energy export-driven economy, vibrant culture and multiethnic society. T&T is a leading regional economy with an international presence in the oil and gasbased energy industry, and a profitable and productive services sector. T&T is also pursuing a policy of economic diversification and is investing in several other sectors. Trade, investment and innovation are also policy priorities of this two-island nation as it continues its path to development.

Location And Topography

Trinidad: Latitude 10.5°N
Longitude 61.5° W
Area: 4,828 sq km (1,864 sq miles)
Tobago: Latitude 11.5°N
Longitude 60.5°W
Area: 300 sq km (116 sq miles)
Time Zone: EST (Eastern Standard Time)
UTC-4 (Universal Time

Time Zone

  • Greenwich Mean Time: Minus four hours (GMT -4)
  • In US Winter: Eastern Standard Time plus one hour (EST +1)
  • In US Summer: Eastern Standard Time (EST)
  • There is no Daylight Saving Time (DST).

Geography And Location


Once attached to the South American mainland, Trinidad is situated at 12 km (7 miles) northeast of the coast of Venezuela and is separated from it by the Gulf of Paria. Trinidad has three mountain ranges — the Northern Range, the Central Range and the Southern Range. The highest point, El Cerro del Aripo, is 940 metres (3,084 ft) above sea level. About 40% of all land is undeveloped forest and woodlands, although the island is experiencing rapid development. Trinidad’s Pitch Lake is the largest natural reservoir of asphalt in the world.

Total Area: 4,828 sq km (1,864 sq miles) 81.25 km long by 57-73 km wide (50 miles by 35-45 miles)
Location: Latitude 10.5° N Longitude 61.5° W


Tobago lies 34 km (21 miles) northeast of Trinidad. Of volcanic origin, the island is a single mountain mass, although the south-west is flat or undulating and coralline. The highest peak, the Main Ridge, reaches an elevation of about 576 metres (1,890 ft). The coastline is broken up by inlets and sheltered beaches, and there are several uninhabited islets.

Total Area: 300 sq km (116 sq miles)
Location: Latitude 11.5° N Longitude 60.5° W


Daytime Average: 29°C (84°F)
Nighttime Average: 24°C (75°F)
Seasons: Dry (Jan-May)
Wet (June-Dec)


  • Trinidad and Tobago has a tropical climate and two distinct seasons: dry, from January to May and wet, from June to December. There is a short dry period around mid-September called Petit Carême. Trinidad and Tobago are just outside the usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms, but Tobago can experience inclement weather as a result of such weather systems.
  • Daytime Average: 31.9°C (Trinidad June 2017);
    30.9°C (Tobago June 2017)
  • Nighttime Average: 24.3°C (June 2017);
    25.2°C (Tobago June 2017
  • Seasons: Dry (Jan-May);
    Wet (June-Dec)


General elections take place every five years
Parliament: Westminster system
Tobago: Tobago House of Assembly
Local Government Body
Head of State: Non-executive President


Trinidad and Tobago’s government is a parliamentary democracy. The head of state is the President, who is elected by an Electoral College of members of the Senate and House of Representatives for a five-year term. Executive power, however, is vested in the Prime Minister and Government, following elections every five years. The local government body in Tobago is the Tobago House of Assembly and its seat is in the capital city, Scarborough.

General elections take place every five years

Parliament: Westminster system

Tobago: Tobago House of Assembly

Local Government Body

Head of State: Non-Executive President






Currency And Taxes

Trinidad and Tobago Dollar
Exchange Rate: TTD 6.76: USD 1 (June 2017)
Value Added Tax: 15% on somegoods and services
Hotel Tax: 10% Service Charge
10% Hotel Room Tax


The financial system consists of Commercial Banks, Trust and Mortgage Finance Companies, Finance Houses and Merchant Banks

Number of Commercial Banks: 8

Number of Branches: 122

Number of Automatic Banking Machines: 458

Bank Hours of Operation

City Centres: Monday to Thursday – 8 a.m. to 2 p.m.

Friday – 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. & 3 p.m. to 5 p.m.

RBC and Scotiabank (not mall branches) 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.

8 RBC Branches open on Saturday 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.

Shopping Centres (Daily): 10 a.m. to 5 p.m

Economic Data

Declining economic activity in the second half of 2016 dominated the energy sector. Weaknesses were manifested in contractions in crude oil, natural gas, LNG and petrochemical production which outweighed increases in petroleum refining. Latest figures show natural gas production fell by 15.4% in the second half of 2016. The decline was a result of a drop in production from bpTT, however, production from bpTT’s Juniper platform should boost natural gas supplies and the energy sector on the whole in the latter part of 2017.

Growth in the non-energy sectors such as distribution, construction and manufacturing contracted in Q3, 2016. Manufacturing activity declined by 4.3% and this is attributable to lower chemicals and assembly-type output. There was a reduction in electricity generation at the end of 2016 as electricity and water output declined by 3.7%. The closure of ArcelorMittal, the largest single industrial consumer of electricity, is linked to this development. The finance, insurance and real estate subsectors rose by 0.8% on account of an increase in commercial banking but there was a decline in activity in trust companies, real estate and mutual funds. The agriculture sector increased by 0.4 %.


Trinidad: Piarco International Airport,
17 miles (27 km) from Port of Spain (code ‘POS’)
Tobago: A.N.R. Robinson International
Airport, 7 miles (10 km) from
Scarborough (code ‘TAB’)
Major Airlines: American Airlines (868) 821-6000
British Airways (800) 247-9297
Caribbean Airlines (868) 625-7200
United Airlines (800) 864-8331
LIAT (800) 744-5222
Copa Airlines (868) 669-5189
Rutaca 1 (868) 625-4324

Meeting Places And Conference Centres

Trinidad and Tobago is one of the top five Caribbean meeting and conference destinations. Many hotels have facilities for conferences, including international brands such as the Hyatt Regency Trinidad and the Hilton Trinidad and Conference Centre. In addition, the state-of-the-art National Academy for the Performing Arts (NAPA), South Academy for the Performing Arts, award-winning spots like Coco Reef and the Magdalena Grand Beach Resort in Tobago are ideal for corporate meetings and team-building retreats. Trinidad and Tobago hosted 29,449 business travellers during the first half of 2017.

Main Seaports

Port of Port of Spain

Port of Point Lisas

Scarborough Deep Water Harbour

People And Society

Ethnic Groups (2011 census)

East Indian 35.4%

African 34.2%

Mixed 15.1%

Dougla (mixed African and Indian) 7.7%

Other 1.4%

Life Expectancy Male: 71.41 (2011 census)

Life Expectancy Female: 77.81 (2011 census)

Population Growth Rate: 0.3 (2016)

Birth Rate: 12.8 / 1000 (2016)

Total Median Age: 32.6 (2011 census)

Legal System

The legal system is based on common law and statutes. The judicial system comprises magistrates’ courts and the Supreme Court, which is made up of the High Court and the Court of Appeal. There is a separate Industrial Court that deals with most labour matters. The Judicial and Legal Service Commission appoints judges of the Supreme Court. The Attorney General is responsible for the administration of the legal and judicial system. Final appeal from Trinidad and Tobago courts is to the Privy Council in England, but consideration is being given to replacing the Privy Council with the Caribbean Court of Justice, which was inaugurated in April 2005, with its headquarters located in Port of Spain.





The educational system is based on the British model and produces one of the highest standards of education in the Caribbean. Primary and secondary level education at most institutions are free, but private school options are available for a fee.

Post-secondary and tertiary education providers include The University of the West Indies (The UWI), the College of Science, Technology & Applied Arts of Trinidad & Tobago (COSTAATT), distance learning tertiary-level institutions, vocational/technical training schools and colleges, the technology-based University of Trinidad and Tobago (UTT), and the National Institute of Higher Education, Research, Science and Technology (NIHERST).


Trinidad and Tobago’s health system consists of government-funded and private hospitals, well-qualified specialists, private medical practitioners and clinics scattered throughout the islands. Specialists trained in gynaecology, paediatrics, radiology, physiotherapy, cardiology, gastrology, urology and orthopaedics work both in private practice and healthcare facilities.

Medical services are free at the government-funded institutions and clinics, but a fee is charged at all others. Twenty-four-hour emergency services are available at several government and private medical facilities.

There is also a 24-hour Emergency

Air Ambulance Service.


Public Utilities


Trinidad and Tobago has a reliable supply of electricity with rates still among the lowest in the Caribbean. The domestic and commercial supply voltage is 110/220 volts, 60 cycles. The Trinidad and Tobago Electricity Commission (T&TEC) is the agency responsible for the country’s electrical supply.



The Water and Sewerage Authority of Trinidad and Tobago (WASA), a state enterprise, is the sole provider of water and wastewater services in Trinidad and Tobago.



The Telecommunications and Broadcasting sectors generated an estimated TT$5.6 billion (US$836.0 million) in 2016, which as a percentage of GDP equates to 3.8%. This represented a 0.3% decrease in total revenues generated by this industry compared to last year. Total Telecom revenues increased by 2% while total broadcasting revenues decreased by 11%. TSTT has, for many years, been the major provider of landline and mobile telephone services. Digicel offers mobile and cable television to both islands and has also introduced fixed line and domestic wireless services. Flow offers cable television, internet and landline telephone services. With broad coverage throughout the islands, mobile phones are an easy and available option. Wireless Internet services are readily available at hotels and cybercafés.

International Access Code: 1

Country Code: 868

1. Fixed Internet Subscriptions 255,600

2. Mobile Internet Subscriptions 707,300


Post/Courier Services

Regular mail, express mail and courier delivery are reliable and available from local provider TTPost at excellent rates. International courier services are efficient and readily available.



Daily Newspapers: Trinidad Express, Trinidad Guardian and Newsday

Monday – Friday: Newsday Tobago

Bi-weekly Newspapers: TNT Mirror

Weekly Newspapers: Tobago News, Catholic News, Bomb, Punch, Trinidad and Tobago Sunshine, Tobago Today

Television Stations: CNC (Channel 3), CCN TV6 (Channels 5 and 18), Gayelle Television (Channel 7), IBN (Channel 8), CTV (Channel

6), NCC (Channel 4), IETV (Channel 1 and 16), Parliament (Channel 11), Tobago Channel 5 (Tobago only), Synergy (Channel 15)

FM Radio Stations:

TBC Network (95.1, Vibe CT 105, Sangeet 106.1, Aakash Vani 106.5, Slam 100.5, Sky 99.5) CL Network (90.5, 104.1, 97.1, 103.5) Caribbean New Media Group (Talk City 91.1, Next 99.1, Sweet 100.1)

T&T Radio Network (Star 94.7, 96.1, 107.7) Gem Radio 5 Limited (Red 96.7, i95.5, the Word 107.1, Hott 93.5, Taj 92.3)

Power 102, Boom Champions 94.1, Isaac 98.1, Street 91.9, Radio Jaagriti 102.7, Wack 90.1, Pulse 91.5 (Tobago), Radio Toco 106.7, 103.1,

Radio Tambrin 92.7 (Tobago), 104.7, and Heritage 101.7.

Immigration, Work Permits & Visas

Visitors to Trinidad and Tobago must possess valid passports and return or ongoing tickets for successful entry. Most Commonwealth countries do not require visas for entry, except Australia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Cameroon, Fiji Islands, Mozambique, Uganda and South Africa. For business travel and vacations lasting 90 days or less (within a 180-day period) European Union citizens do not need visas for entry. The same applies for nationals from non-European Union Schengen countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland). Holders of CARICOM passports, with the exception of Haiti, do not require visas. Visitors from several other countries are allowed to enter Trinidad and Tobago for periods of up to three months without a visa.


Work permits are required for business stays beyond 30 days. Visa extensions can be obtained from the Immigration Office at 67 Frederick Street, Port of Spain, while work permits can be obtained from the Ministry of National Security,

Temple Court II,

52-60 Abercromby Street,

Port of Spain.




Piarco International Airport is located about 45 minutes from the capital city, Port of Spain. It plays an important role as a vital hub for international air traffic in the Caribbean. There are non-stop daily scheduled flights to and from major international cities.

Trinidad and Tobago’s national airline, Caribbean Airlines, serves Toronto, New York, Miami, Jamaica, Saint Maarten, Antigua, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and Suriname. International and regional airlines that fly to Trinidad and Tobago include American Airlines, British Airways, Caribbean Airlines, United Airlines, West Jet, JetBlue, LIAT and several charter flight companies. International flights are also available direct from Tobago’s ANR Robinson International Airport.



Trinidad and Tobago has an extensive transportation network of paved roads. Highways link the north and south of the island (Uriah Butler Highway, Solomon Hochoy Highway), and the east and west (Churchill-Roosevelt Highway). Traffic is extremely heavy at peak hours when a high number of vehicles head into and out of the capital city and environs. Driving is on the left-hand side.




The main seaports are located in Port of Spain and Point Lisas. The Port of Port of Spain handles dry and general cargo, break bulk, containers and passenger traffic. The Point Lisas Industrial Port Development Corporation Ltd. (PLIPDECO), mainly a bulk port for industrial commerce, also handles container and general cargo traffic. There are ferries travelling the inter-island route daily.

Port of Spain Ferry: (868) 625-3055

Tobago Ferry: (868) 639-2417

The CARICOM Jetty, which is located at the Port of Port of Spain and operates the passenger inter-island ferry, receives, stores and delivers CARICOM cargo and multipurpose containers for trade within the Caribbean region.

A water taxi ferry connects Port of Spain and San Fernando. Scheduled sailing times are Monday to Friday. Tickets cost TT$15 one-way and can be purchased at the Water Taxi Terminal located at Flat Rock, Lady Hailes Avenue, San Fernando or the Cruise Ship Complex, Port of Spain. Free parking is available at both ports. There is a Public Transport Service Corporation (PTSC) shuttle service, which costs TT$3 through the city of Port of Spain.

For further information, visit:

www.nidco.co.tt or call 624-3281 (POS) or

800-4WTS (San Fernando)

Major Airlines

Piarco Airport

American Airlines........1 (868) 821-6000

Caribbean Airlines...... 1 (868) 625-7200

British Airways..........1 (800) 247-9297

Copa Airlines............1 (868) 669-5189

LIAT.....................1 (800) 669-2982

Surinam Airways......... 1 (868) 627-0102

United Airways.......... 1 (800) 864-8331

West Jet Airlines....... 1 (403) 444-2586

JetBlue..................1 (800) 538-2583

Rutaca...................1 (868) 625-4324

ANR Robinson Airport

Virgin Atlantic...........1 (800) 744-7477

Condor and Thomas &

Cook Group Airlines.......1 (868) 639-5201

British Airways...........1 (800) 247-9297

The following airlines/flights are sometimes scheduled to operate during peak periods.

Air Canada Rouge..........1 (868) 623-2721

LASER Airlines............laser.com.ve

INSEL Air................fly-inselair.com

Conviasa Airlines.........1 (868) 627-8172/6078


The festivals, music, customs, cuisine, religions and races of Trinidad and Tobago reflect a rich and unique cultural diversity. The nation has a passionate and colourful history spanning five centuries. Festivals and religious and cultural observances include Divali (the Hindu Festival of Light), Eid-ul-Fitr (Muslim religious day), Emancipation Day, Indian Arrival Day and Corpus Christi (Catholic). Trinidad and Tobago Carnival is a world-famous event that brings together artists, musicians, masqueraders and revellers for a month-long celebration that culminates in a two-day parade.



Trinidad and Tobago, although relatively distinct ecologically, are both blessed with rich natural environments well suited for ecotourism. Once part of the South American mainland, Trinidad’s flora and fauna have comingled, leading to a great density of plant and animal types in a relatively small location.

Trinidad and Tobago has more than 97 mammal species, 400 bird species, 90 reptile species, 30 amphibian species, 600 butterfly species and over 2,100 species of flowering plants. The island’s nature reserves attract major international traffic from naturalists and nature watchers. The terrain is just as diverse, with tropical rainforests, mangrove swamps, mountainous terrain and savannahs.

Birdwatching is a major attraction in Tobago as well, with Little Tobago island recognised as one of the Caribbean’s top seabird sanctuaries. Tobago is also a hub of aquatic tourism. The waters off the island are a haven for wildlife, an attraction for both divers and boat tourists. Buccoo Reef (a large coral reef and protected marine park) is a popular destination. Tobago’s Main Ridge Forest is known to be the oldest protected rainforest.



Emergency Contacts

Police/Rapid Response.................999



Global Medical Response...............653-4343

Coast Guard...........................634-4440

Port of Spain General Hospital ........623-2951

San Fernando General Hospital.........652-3581

Scarborough General Hospital..........660-4SGH (4744)

Roxborough Health Centre and Hyperbaric Facility, Tobago.........660-4392

The Office of Disaster Preparedness and Management (ODPM)........(6376)

- Trinidad............................640-1285/8905/8653/6493

- Tobago..............................660-7489

Crime Stoppers........................800-TIPS (8477)

Directory Services (Trinidad).........6411

Directory Services (Tobago)...........211